Cat breathing fast after surgery

Dec 20, 2021 · Tachypnea is rapid breathing that is abnormally shallow. Pale gums. Learn about the causes of breathing problems and when you should be concerned. Cat Breathing Fast - What is a Normal Cat Respiratory Rate? After this, your vet will check your cat's breathing, and use a stethoscope to check for fluid in the lungs and heart murmurs. About fast Cat after surgery breathing • Pain after surgery may change how you breathe. May 02, 2012 · It sounds like such a simple question, but the answer is actually far more complicated than we think. Jan 27, 2022 · Can You Reshape Your Nose Without Surgery You may have heard that you should never judge a book by its cover, but you'd really do well not to judge someone's personality based on their appearance alone. The first documented ancestors of Persian cats were imported into Italy from Persia around 1620. However, you’re probably wrong. The sterilization of female cats is associated with several possible complications that may occur during or after the surgery. I have managed to hold back the tears for the last 2 hours but i feel like my heart is breaking I miss her so bad. Polyps that are in the throat may result in breathing difficulty. de 2021 Have you ever noticed your cat breathing quickly while sleeping? If your cat is breathing rapidly, it can be a sign of a variety of issues Understanding the possible causes of your cat's panting can help you Cats that need surgery will need post-operative care, which might include follow-up 26 de ago. If your cat is breathing fast while purring, it could be in pain. We know that many owners may have concerns taking their pet home after an anaesthetic or surgical procedure. Adenoid removal surgery is done under general anesthesia. Designate Transportation After Surgery. Mucous membranes should have a pinkish tint. You won’t be in pain, but you won’t be able to drive either. If your 30 de ago. Mar 29, 2018 · How to Prepare for a Successful Recovery After Cataract Surgery 1. Sep 17, 2018 · Senior cats are at a greater risk for developing hyperthyroidism than any other age group of cats. or smear negative active case of TB again. For example, dogs may stand with the elbows spread out and the back arched. Jan 25, 2022 · An image of a cat seemingly concerned for its owner taking a bath has gone viral on Reddit. Norman Jan 22, 2022 · An overactive thyroid gland, known as hyperthyroidism, is one cause. de 2020 How do I know if my cat has pneumonia? · Unusually fast breathing rate · Coughing up mucus or blood · Bluish mouth · Lethargy · Untidy appearance 15 de nov. • Pain after surgery may change how you breathe. 6 de dez. Swallowing function: depending on the degree of esophageal dysfunction and risk of aspiration pneumonia, medications to aid with swallowing may be prescribed. Apr 27, 2021 · In cats, these can occur as hives or labored breathing. Keeping these patients relatively quiet for at least 2-3 weeks after surgery thus becomes important. Nov 17, 2015 · The REAL Reason "Sam and Cat" Was Suddenly Pulled From TV After Just One Season It was more than just co-stars "butting heads. Source: www. Sunken eyes. Dyspnea. Hyperthyroidism, also known as an overactive thyroid in laymans terms, is a condition in which the thyroid sen Burial at Cimarron Valley Cemetery, with Rev. Coughing is another symptom that often accompanies dyspnea. Decreased grooming. And that means that the recovery time she will need more. Nose Conditions. We have the best selection of the Nolan Laufenberg. Actually, it is most commonly detected by a doctor's exam and the doctor feels the nodule. Initially it was filmed in King's College Hospital in Denmark Hill, Camberwell, but in the seventh series, the setting was changed to St George's Hospital in Tooting, Wandsworth, and has been filmed there since. It is also known as the "Persian Longhair" in English-speaking countries. Some cats show no sign of illness, especially early in the disease, which can lead to congestive heart failure. Prompt action at the first signs of mouth problems could save your cat's teeth and prevent gum infections. If your cat is breathing fast, its easy to panic - what could be causing this, and is it an emergency? Our Raritan, Somerset County vets describe whats If you find that your cats breathing is consistently fast after keeping an eye on it for a couple of hours, contact our veterinarian as soon as possible, soBreathing difficulties in cats can range from mild to life-threatening. Deviated Septum Sinusitis and Sinus Surgery Rhinoplasty Broken Nose (Nasal Fracture) Signs and Symptoms Nasal Polyposis (Nose Polyps) Nasal Valve Collapse Treatment. Diabetes mellitus in cats is more similar to Type 2 diabetes in people. This includes 3) Your cat(s) may vomit periodically from the anesthetic within the first 24 hours after surgery. In fact, 95% of cats with hyperthyroid disease are 10 years old or older. Find out what issues are expected and when you should call your surgeon or go to the ER. In addition to allergies, ENT specialists treat deviated septum, rhinitis, sinusitis, sinus headaches and migraines, nasal obstruction and surgery, and more. Brachycephalic Syndrome. Sick Cat Symptoms. Diagnostic approach is determined by the category All Feline Hospital. Second day. Raised skin: The lymph nodes near a surgical incision will swell if the incision is infected. Your cat may not have a normal appetite after surgery. Holly, a seventeen-year-old domestic short-hair cat came to see me for weight loss and not wanting to eat for 3 days (we call this symptom anorexia in veterinary medicine, but I prefer the term inappetence, because it does not resemble the psychological and physical disease many people suffer by the same name. Provides an easily interpretable binary result: positive (105) predicts failure. Any commercial use or distribution without the express written consent of STATS P The Persian cat ( Persian: گربه پارسی, Gorbe'-ye Pârsi) is a long-haired breed of cat characterized by its round face and short muzzle. It should also be noted that breathing fast while sleeping can be completely normal for puppy breathing rates, too. Reasons for fatigue after surgery are numerous. If your cat has any of the below symptoms for more than a day or two he/she probably has an upper respiratory infection. However, please know that each patient case is unique. While laryngectomies are typically done as a curative cancer surgery, some patients will have recurrences and be seen in palliative care and hospice settings. This causes them Jan 12, 2022 · Hyperthyroidism is the overproduction of thyroid hormone by the thyroid glands. 13 de mar. 2 days ago · After seeing The Big Bang Theory alum remembering her dog of 14 years, the comments section was immediately flooded with heartfelt words from celebrity friends and fans. A low respiratory rate may be seen in animals that have become very cold or those that remain deeply anaesthetised. 3. The treatment appeared to work for a while, but Jannusch noticed that BJ's condition worsened again after a couple of months. Feb 21, 2014 · Essentially, breathing is a response to our activity and state of mind. Causes of Tachypnea in Cats. 045 mg/lb (0. Laryngeal nerve damage is injury to one or both of the nerves that are attached to the voice box. A healthy cat’s temperature should be between 37-38 degrees Celsius. Thyroid hormone affects the The cat may be groggy after surgery, but should be fully awake by the evening. These cats have thyroid cells in abnormal locations, including inside the chest cavity where surgical removal is difficult. Any bee sting or insect bite has the potential to cause problems ranging from a minor local reaction (pain, swelling or itching) to a more serious one (hives, facial swelling, vomiting, trouble breathing, and in rare cases, collapse). Nov 17, 2020 · Always have your cat evaluated by a trained veterinarian at the first sign of rapid breathing. Find out what a CAT scan is, what CAT scan stands for, and what a cat scan shows. Damage to the nerves of the larynx can cause hoarseness, difficulty in swallowing or breathing, or the loss of voice. After a dental operation, your cat needs softer food while his gums heal. May 03, 2018 · Weight loss. Lymphoma, squamous cell carcinoma, mast cell tumour, and bone cancer are all common in cats. " So don't take it personally if they don't greet you with the excitement they usually do. She has had some upper resp issues before and been on prednisone{sp?} which I still have. Recently developed heated breathing circuits (Darvall) warm inspired gases from the first breath after intubation, targeting the post-induction rapid heat loss occurring during "clip and prep. I thought she may have contracted an infection because her breathing was troublesome, so I took her to the vet yesterday. In the feline world Recognizing the signs a cat is dying of old age can help you make the best choice for your pet. “The greatest. The same holds true for noses: It's easy to assume a person's character based solely upon how they look because we don't often get to know them beyond what they wear or carry around in their 24 Hours in A&E is a British documentary programme, set in a teaching hospital in inner London. 9. Photo provided by Trimline Recovery Collars, used with permission. Check the cat for any breathing or bleeding problems every hour for the first 12 hours. Great is 17-24, normal is 24-30, fast is 30-40 and labored is 40 and above. Sadly, one in five cats get cancer. Rapid breathing such as panting without exertion also warrant a call to the vet. Cat breathing fast after surgery Jul 28, 2020 · Airway-related problems, especially obstruction, are a commonAfter surgery, breathing exercises are an important part of the recovery. It was a Saturday, and Sophie, my Galga was breathing a little oddly -- a bit fast and shallow. Just as with surgery for people, these types of procedures can carry moderate risks which you will be informed of. Mar 06, 2018 · Caring for your spayed cat (neutered cat) after surgery Post operative care for cats who have been spayed. The definition of a CAT scan is a special X-ray test that produces cross-sectional images of the body using X-rays and a computer. General surgery aftercare for pets. de 2021 Here our Argyle vets explain the reasons why your cat could be breathing heavily/panting and when you should call your vet. Be sure she slowly begins to eat her normal diet again over the 48 hours after her spay. 5ºF) – One to two days before giving birth, her temperature will drop to 37. Refusal to eat. I learned the hard way that you aren't supposed to "test out" of isolation, when a physicianMultimodal enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) is an integrated, multidisciplinary approach that requires participation and commitment from the patient, surgeons The goals of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols include attenuating the surgical stress response and reducing end⋅ r/castration. Your cat breathes fast because when it purrs, sometimes their nose may itch and feel like they are going to sneeze, so they breathe hard. The timing depends in part on the cause of the food poisoning. Do not worry if your cat does not eat tonight, Caring for Your Cat or Dog After Surgery. Laryngeal nerve damage can be caused by injury, tumors, surgery, or infection. Your cat has just had surgery on either their stomach or small intestinal tract, or both. She would occasionally hack a little too. Thought the breathing was his heart failure issue but now not so sure. Some signs of dehydration in cats include: Loss of energy. This is generally caused by either a build up of fluid in the chest cavity around the lungs (called a pleural effusion), or due to a build up of fluid within the lungs themselves (called pulmonary General surgery aftercare for pets. This means that the breed has abnormally short and small snouts and oddly shaped skulls. During this unconscious state, there is muscular relaxation and a complete loss of pain sensation. Nov 13, 2020 · Difficulty breathing. She was a bit feverish this morning, so I told her to stay in bed. If the cat vomits, clean the mouth and nose to prevent inhalation of the material. Sep 18, 2021 · If your cat is wheezing when breathing loudly, there is a high chance they are asthmatic. You will notice that your cat is walking stiffly and breathes more heavily. He […] Anesthesia for Cats. After surgery or catheter closure, your child's pediatric cardiologist may advise some activity changes for a short time. Abdominal surgery is the most common cause of abdominal adhesions. I fell and banged my knee, and it really hurts. 2 mg/kg) body weight intravenously (IV) or subcutaneously (SQ), followed after 24 hours, by METACAM Oral Suspension at the daily dose of 0. His owners actually reached out to me after receiving an email from Home Again (the phone number attached to his chip was disconnected, but there was an email address andCat breathing fast after surgery. New research has now shown that this Apr 11, 2021 · After surgery, some cats may be groggy under the influence of anesthesia, but many others are relatively alert, especially male cats and young kittens. I took them to the vet and he said that they are all 27 de out. All brachycephalic breeds suffer from breathing issues, what varies is the severity of the issues. Dec 11, 2018 · The animal is sleeping, breathing is even and calm. Use a hot shower, humidifier, vaporizer or other means of making steam. Depending on the cause and severity, other signs such as a fever, increased thirst or vomiting may also be seen. Cat breathing fast after surgery Mar 20, 2018 · But if your feline friend isn’t drinking or eating normally 48 hours after surgery, you need to consult your vet immediately. Several factors that predispose people to getting Type 2 diabetes also seem to be important in cats. Ask a friend or a family member to drive you to and from your surgery, as well Sep 23, 2019 · 10 Noises Your Cat Makes—And What They All Mean. allfelinehospital. Asthma is caused by a narrowing of the airways due to an inflammatory response. It shows that there may be something wrong with the vaccine if the world's greatest athletes suffer or die after taking the vaccines. ), but any longer with additional symptoms may pose as a real underlying problem. Arbitrary instructions are given, and recommendations on performance and duration vary between hospitals. Symptoms and complications may start any time after surgery, even many years later. ), but any longer with additional symptoms may pose as a real Your cat's breathing may increase if they become overexcited after exercise, but this should decrease after a few minutes. Jan 01, 2016 · Most spayed cats can resume normal activity 7 days after surgery. Feb 06, 2019 · Keep Cats Indoors. Postsurgical fatigue results from sleep deficit, depression, anxiety, medications, anemia, blood loss, and loss of electrolytes and minerals. the room temp was 84, is now 82. 7º to 39. ABC7 news reporter, Kate Larsen also questioned how the Covid jabs are affecting women's menstrual cycles on socialThe CDC advises that after confirming your infection, you should start isolating right away, but unless you are asymptomatic, the first day of symptoms is technically what counts as the start of your 10 days of isolation. 3yr ⋅ Sparkey49. When you inhale, your diaphragm contracts (tightens) and moves downward. “When cats are usually food-motivated but start to turn Aug 06, 2021 · For younger dogs or puppies, their breath is expected to be more accelerated than that of a full-grown dog at a range of 15 to 40 breaths a minute – this is called ‘puppy rapid breathing’. Cat breathing fast after surgery. Limping. Rapid shallow ventilation may denote 4 de fev. Following surgery, you may experience: Voice changes, such as, a hoarse voice, difficulty in speaking loudly, voice fatigue, and a change in the tone of your voice. The same holds true for noses: It's easy to assume a person's character based solely upon how they look because we don't often get to know them beyond what they wear or carry around in their Jan 25, 2022 · An image of a cat seemingly concerned for its owner taking a bath has gone viral on Reddit. Decreased drinking. de 2014 Breathing Changes: A cat in pain may breathe faster or shallower when Additionally, if your cat has recently undergone a surgery or Please read the following instructions carefully, as any animal that does not meet the outlined physical parameters for surgery (over/underweight, Labored or painful breathing. After your cat has given birth, she'll usually provide the warmth and nutrition that her kittens need. Whatever the cause for labored breathing, your cat needs an immediate medical evaluation since this condition cannot be treated at home and can be deadly. Meanwhile, the report of this highly respected pathologist and pro-vaccine doctor is being suppressed. Monitor your cat closely, keeping them as cool and calm as possible. In the days following abdominal surgery, patients' intestinal contents pass more slowly or not at all. Any other symptoms – look out for lethargy or weight loss, sneezing, wheezing, breathing difficulties or any other symptoms that don’t seem right to you. Undermentioned are the symptoms, causes, and precautionary measures for the same. If you notice such a thing, visit the vet as soon as possible. By monitoring your pet’s heart rate, your veterinarian can make anesthetic adjustments quickly. If your guinea pig has gone through surgery recently, then breathing fast can be the symptom of pain they are experiencing. If we need additional information, we may do a biopsy. In some cases liver disease may cause fluid to accumulate in the abdomen (ascites); and with more advanced or severe disease, jaundice 5. 5 mg per pound of body weight (or 2-5 mg per kg). You should take the health of your cat should with the seriousness it deserves. de 2019 When you go jogging with your dog, your dog is tachypneic after the run. Depending on how long feline hyperthyroidism goes untreated, the result can be severe heart disease. These changes are due to damage to the laryngeal nerves that supply your voice box (larynx) during surgery. But after successful healing from surgery or catheter closure, no restrictions are usually needed. Don't fill your lungs too full of air. Your results may vary. This type of breathing is normally only seen when a person is under stress, but for those who habitually breathe through their mouths, the negative side effects of stress and over Aug 27, 2020 · Mouth breathing due to a cold or the flu is totally normal and to be expected. It is important to understand the functions behind your breathing and sinuses. The cause of feline hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is unknown, although certain breeds of cats The goal is to provide minimal disruption to the pet’s diet and insulin routine. Hemodynamic stability. Surgical incision site of a female cat. Exercise, physical stress, aging, and the overall health of a person affect postsurgical fatigue. Some will purr loudly when they are cautiously investigating new environments (my own cat purrs loudest when it's exploring the back of the wardrobe). de 2021 If you notice that your feline friend is panting or breathing heavily, take a moment to assess the situation based on the following criteria 30 de dez. Try relaxation or meditation techniques. It can also cause the respiratory muscles to weaken and lose their ability to move optimally. Sometimes, complications can occur after surgery. In cats, more than 90% of nasal tumors are cancerous (malignant). Jul 09, 2015 · First Person: Breathing Easy After Trusting My Gut. These types of infections can last anywhere from 7 to 21 days, with 7 to 10 days as the average Oct 21, 2020 · Cats will not pant or hold their mouth open wide when coughing, and coughing is not really fast—each cough will likely have at least a second or two in between. When the cat wakes up, its movements at first are angular, inhibited, unsure. The post has been upvoted 12,600 times so far, and people can't seem to get enough of the furry feline. 4-7-8 Breathing. Walk. Treatment failure (ТF). It's easy to mistake this as a side-effect of the anesthesia. Self-care tips: Feb 03, 2020 · Lower Body Temperature. Continued. Mar 09, 2017 · Abnormal breathing or mouth breathing on the other hand; is often faster than normal, audible, punctuated by sighs, and involves visible movements of the upper chest. Apr 16, 2021 · Medications used before, during, and after surgery can increase the chances of constipation in cats. You can take her temperature in the armpit if she lets you, but usually, there are enough other signs that labor is starting that you won’t need to Pug Breathing Problems – The Basics. When we think about noises that cats make, three different sounds generally come to mind: meows, purrs, and hisses. finexsurgicalonline. The pus can be white, green, blood-tinged or yellow in color. Taking extra care of your cat after a surgical procedure means they're more likely to recover faster and be back to their regular selves sooner. It may indicate soreness but may also be due to anxiety or in reaction to the prescribed pain medication. Shallow breathing or holding your breath is not exactly "holding" your breath, but it is interfering with the flow of life force and the potential motion of the diaphragm. de 2014 It's been about a week now and the gagging, heavy breathing, and vomiting has not stopped. “With appropriate veterinary Mar 08, 2019 · Gem Hubbard, now 34, of Brighton, went under the knife as a child to repair an aortic arch obstruction. You can then work with your vet to minimize your cat's risks and help keep him safe. For now because her color is good I would hold off on making an oxygen tent as some cats get quite I have a 6 year female cat that is breathing rapidly. Tachypnea, unlike dyspnea (distressful feeling associated with labored breathing), need not be an indication of distress. Cats suffering from asthma show several other clinical signs as well, including rapid breathing, coughing or hacking, and a general difficulty when breathing. I gave her Benadryl, thinking maybe her time outside had triggered some allergy. The only way you can know for certain that your cat has a fever is to take their temperature. Some vets warn their clients to expect sometimes aggression because of hormones change. If your cat develops signs and symptoms such as difficulty breathing, 4 de dez. Hypoglycemia is the clinical term for blood glucose concentrations below the accepted reference range, and hyperglycemia is the term May 03, 2018 · Weight loss. With a cold, the sinuses can become blocked and prevent proper air flow through the nose. Keep a careful eye on her, while maintaining a respectable distance, to make sure they are all safe and well. Tiredness, decreased appetite, fast breathing and a rapid heartbeat may accompany the fever. In general, a cough is a sign of lung or heart disease. Gently breathe in through your nose, mouth closed, for a count of six seconds. The average respiration rate for cats is 20-30 breaths per minute, which is approximately twice that of humans. As such, vets give pets a long The cut could be deeper than it appears, or there could be internal bleeding that needs surgery. Nearly everyone has some pain after surgery. Jules Benson, BVSc, chief veterinary officer with NationwideDVM, a pet insurer company. kittens and my other cat are fine. The smell of paint fumes can last for days, weeks, and sometimes even months after the painting takes place. In textbooks, it is sometimes referred to as restrictive breathing pattern and is commonly assumed to suggest lung or pleural space diseases (Hackett, 2009, Hackett, 2017). Cat cancer symptoms can be subtle and cats are good at hiding illness. This may last a few days or a few weeks but is rarely permanent. Cats get comfort and security from enclosed spaces as well as tactile stimulation, which is why they love cuddling up inside of boxes, sinks, dresser drawers, and other tight spaces. And it’s not just cat owners who struggle with this question, those of us who have studied these creatures for years still frequently miss signs of feline pain. Though panting is sometimes a sign of heat or exhaustion, it should decrease after a few minutes. Cats can have asthma or cardiac diseases, causing them to breathe fast while purring. www. Loss of appetite. Asthma is caused by an inflammation in the lungs and often causes shortness of breath and In our team, we have experienced dog dentists and cat dentists to ensure oral hygiene for your furry friends. All Feline Hospital. Feb 17, 2016 · Cats with rhinitis often experience some degree of nasal discharge, sneezing and/or loud “congested” breathing. 48th St. Do not bathe your pet during the recovery period, or apply topical ointment to the incision site—the surgical glue on the incision will dissolve too quickly if 1 de set. Rate of breathing is faster than normal. Sometimes medicines to prevent blood clots and infection are used for a few months after ASD closure. Nov 20, 2013 · After your dog or cat has had surgery (no matter how old or young they are) you MUST keep them restricted for fourteen days. It’s often the sign of a gastrointestinal tumor. Jun 05, 2021 · Rapid breathing after exercise or exertion or at times of stress, such as a trip to the veterinarian and will settle down on its own. In the hospital, the anesthesia continuum includes all of the following four. Chuckie before and after tie back surgery May 2020Подробнее. Sep 23, 2019 · 10 Noises Your Cat Makes—And What They All Mean. Monitor well to ensure that cat is breathing normally and is not bleeding from the surgical site or ear tip site. This type of reaction occurs to some degree almost every time a cat gets vaccinated. About three to 14 days after the skin is broken, a mild infection can occur at the site of the scratch or bite. Weight loss, an unpleasant odor, and other symptoms of aging can indicate your cat may be approaching the end stage of its life, but the severity of the symptoms can help you determine how much time is left. Excessive thirst. Cats have two thyroid glands located in their neck. I'm cat sitting right now. The breaths you take are not as deep as you normally take whenDiscover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. If your cat is breathing faster, you should take it seriously and take him/her to the vet as soon as possible. This can be because of the tube used during their operation to keep them breathing causing irritation to their windpipe. Panting is heaving breathing with the tongue hanging out. Dyspnea is difficult or labored breathing. Mar 06, 2017 · Cats breathing faster than this for only a few minutes is natural (after exercising, etc. Although the exact etiology is not known,… Sep 05, 2018 · Signs of liver disease in cats are often very vague, such as: Inappetence. Though not likely, some pets do have bad reactions from surgery and the drugs involved. Sep 10, 2019 · 23 Answers to Your Cataract Surgery Questions. Causes: transient state after a transfusion of a significant volume of the whole blood; intensive physical activity followed by translocation of the interstitial Oligocytemic hypovolemia is a result of a depletion of the RBCs count. Some things, such as difficulty breathing, significant bleeding, or pain that suddenly increases andDifferent breathing exercises are recommended in different parts of the world, and there is no consensus about the most effective breathing technique after cardiac surgery. Exercise is restricted for 10–14 days to allow the surgery site to heal. The drainage is often thick and sometimes chunky. Difficulty breathing, urinating or defecating; Change in behavior; Diagnosing Cancer in Cats. Jun 02, 2013 · The pretty little cat’s dental disease kept her at the animal hospital for a day of dental cleaning, charting, radiographs (x-rays) and unfortunately, removal of a diseased back molar on the left bottom jaw. Chronic nasal discharge containing mucus, pus, or blood is the most common sign. As the heart weakens, other body organs start to shut down, and the body temperature drops below 37. Depression or anxiety. Physical activity in the recovery period after surgery should be excluded. Most pets will have an operation at some stage in their life, e. Sleep quality during and after cardiothoracic intensive care and psychological health during recovery. Rapid breathing may be a sign of low oxygen levels in the blood or other serious health complications. Lion's Breath. " By Hannah Orenstein Nov 17, 2015 The chest cavity—which houses the lungs, heart, and other vital body parts—is a bone and muscle cage that is framed by the sternum (breastplate), spine, and ribs. [with a high temperature] I had a terrible nauseous feeling after taking the medicine, but it passed. 5 mg and 3. This ensures that cats won’t make huge leaps off walls or fences and risk their incisions with mad dashes across the backyard. ‘Skin tenting’ is a good test to help you determine if your cat is dehydrated. The first day or two after surgery your pet may sleep more than normal. After they do some exercise, record their rate of breathing every minute until it"Practicing a regular, mindful breathing exercise can be calming and energizing and can even help with stress-related health problems ranging from panic attacks to digestive disorders

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