Pictures of slaves

Statewide Alabama Slave Owners. Sep 06, 2019 · Based in Charleston Harbor in South Carolina, Fort Sumter is an artificial island that was built in 1829 — from bricks that were made by slaves. The Great Migration of Puritans had ended, and the colonists badly needed workers. Hagar Brown, former slave at The Oaks plantation, Georgetown County, South Carolina (13. This is a photograph slaves in Richmond, Virginia. These roles include positions of power, Caste membership, Free Companions and mothers. Situated on a site where enslaved Black people were forced to labor in bondage, the museum offers an immersive experience with cutting-edge technology, world-class art, and critically The slave triangle was the route in which the process of slavery took place. All slave auction photographs ship within 48 hours and include a 30-day money-back guarantee. The word 'robotics' was first used by Isaac Asimov in 1937 in a story called Robby. They were chained with 50 other men to a board, with padlocked collars around their necks. Slavery in America was the legal institution of enslaving human beings, mainly Africans and African Americans. Maintained by Deloris Williams. A brief description of the manga Mato Seihei No Slave: This battle fantasy manga follows several heroines who protect people from the monsters that. The importing risk maps show the top five at-risk products imported by G20 Oct 13, 2011 · The photograph pictures the runaway slave Gordon exposing his scourged back to the camera of two itinerant photographers, William D. Oliver. Search for "slavery" in these categories. Slave owners in 1850 and 1860 also include people from the low country of South Carolina who had summer estates in Flat Rock. the location at which the slave was employed, the Confederate officer under whom the work was performed, the number of days worked, the daily rate of pay, and the total amount paid. As many as 1 in 3 of the population in Italy or 1 in 5 across the empire were slaves and upon this foundation of forced labour was built the entire edifice of the Roman state. Abhorrent in their treatment of people as property, these brief descriptions of African Americans who escaped enslavement, albeit sometimes temporarily, bear witness to the bravery and unique characteristics of individuals who defied a massively powerful system allied against them. The slaves had to endure being poked, prodded and forced to open their mouths for the buyers. Capture and Captives “The Slave Hunt” depicts soldiers from Sokoto raiding a village to capture slaves. Slavery, condition in which one human being was owned by another. Here at Humoresque Cartoons, you can search and download the funniest and most relevant new Sex cartoons to use in any kind of electronic media or print publication. In 1864, during the Civil War, the Confederate Documented Slave Plantations of North Carolina is a comprehensive database of various plantations derived from a variety of information mediums. After the engraving published by the Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade, Plymouth, 1788. Beware Slave Masters. Ships leaving Europe first stopped in Africa where they traded weapons, ammunition, metal, liquor, and cloth for captives taken in wars or raids. the transatlantic slave trade. They had even fewer rights than the middle class. Aug 22, 2019 · East Africa's forgotten slave trade. However, it also includes a “supplementary. Africatown, also known as AfricaTown USA and Plateau, is a historic community located three miles (5 km) north of downtown Mobile, Alabama. List of Indian Slaves, Free Indians, and Free African Americans identified in Colonial Records Without Last Names. ( Natural News ) When you picture slave masters, what comes to mind? If you were educated in In fact, some Native American tribes were holding war captives as slaves even before EuropeanA slave was considered by law as property, or chattel, and was deprived of most of the rights ordinarily held by free persons. Find the perfect female slave stock photo. East Indians in Colonial Maryland, Virginia and North Carolina Dec 29, 2020 · File photo of a statue in Boston depicting a freed slave kneeling at President Abraham Lincoln's feet. B. Justo German Cantero (1815-1871) was born in Trinidad, Cuba. Find out how many slaves work for you, and take action. The series of images and clippings, which date from as far back as the late 1700s, show pre-abolition slaves picking cotton on a plantation in Georgia, with another showing the brutal scars inflicted on one slave who was freed from a plantation in Louisiana. . 20 thg 3, 2019 A daguerreotype of the enslaved man, Renty, one of several commissioned by Harvard professor Louis Agassiz. Therefore the photos in this article were all taken in America, from the 1850s to the 1930s and they show the horrors of life for those living under slavery and the accounts of those who survived into old age as free 11. S. 2014-01-31 22:25. The treatment of slaves in the United States often included sexual abuse and rape, the denial of education, and punishments like whippings. Your source for the latest celebrity news, entertainment headlines and celeb gossip, with exclusive stories, photos, video, and more. No need to register, buy now!Georgia's Governor Signed Voting Restrictions Into Law In Front Of A Slave Plantation Picture. Oberon 4. However, art historians say that the Nov 01, 2013 · Slavery was an ever-present feature of the Roman world. In 1619, the first shipment of African slaves arrives in Jamestown, VA. Wade escaped, but a young girl died and several others were injured. Find the perfect Slave Labor stock photos and editorial news pictures from Getty Images. Browse 30,606 slavery stock photos and images available, or search for modern slavery or slavery in america to find more great stock photos and pictures. The six previously unpublished daguerreotypes on the following pages represent an extraordinary historical find. Sainthood and Legend. Share. Prisoners of war, foreign slaves, and their descendants made up a huge part of the slave population in Mesopotamia (King). Nov 7, 2018 - Explore wil's board "Slave Pictures" on Pinterest. 13 plantations had 500-1000 slaves. Although slavery in the late 1700s was happening all around the world, much of the slave trade occurred in the Americas. Landscapes. slave. Moses Kills Egyptian Engraving by Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld (March 26, 1794 - May 24, 1872) egyptian slaves stock illustrations. Gal Gadot in Marie Claire Spain - February 2022. Thomas Jefferson did not free Sally Hemings. Feb 24, 2018 · The slaves were furious, and a few of them set fire to the original house. As a result, slavery not only broke people’s bodies, it also tried to break their spirits. not pictures with text) Each slave has a unique set of abilities and a unique skill treeJoin the biggest NSFW content sharing community on the internet. William Mills - 20 2. In the 2nd ed. David rejects the advances of Queen Kari and sides with the blondesThe site owner hides the web page description. Mar 15, 2017 · Blacks in America Owned Black Slaves. These images depict scenes from the trans-Atlantic slave trade, illustrating the capture, confinement, and inhumane conditions experienced by enslaved African people. Only about half of those over 100 actually included names. Most Indigenous forced laborers in Slave kidnappers negotiate price. [1]. SLAVERY in NEW HAMPSHIRE. south carolina plantation american slaves slave plantations african slavery slaves on plantation slavery in the south slave plantation port royal south carolina slave quarters. For Northern readers scanning the Jan. While women could participate to various extents within family There was no cooling in the hot and humid days. You're so obsessed with being My good little toilet now that you are African American > History & Culture> > American Slavery > Slave Records By County. Her story as a “conductor” during the 19th century on the “Underground Railroad” is already well known to Americans and is being circulated Lund Washington, George Washington's cousin and farm manager noted in his Account Book the issue of clothing that the men on the outlying plantations received in 1774, including: "A jackett. Rare photos of slaves on the slave ships Indian Ocean: East African slaves taken aboard the Dutch HMS Daphne from a Arab dhow, 1 November 1868. A woman who claims to be the ancestor of those slaves is suing Harvard for “wrongful seizure, possession and monetization of the images. Abraham Hamburg 11 Male Black GeorgiaAbraham 46,300 plantations (estates with 20 or more slaves) existed in the United States. Slaves served in households, agriculture, mines, the military, workshops, construction and many services. These people were called abolitionists. For some pictures which you can not find, ask here, maybe someone can find them for you. Another element that played a big role in the rise of slave population was the fact that white servitude began to go down in number because of skilled workers, the prices for white laborers increased, thus many colonists Jun 04, 2017 · Child Labor: Any form of modern day slavery that involves children under 18 is considered child labor. The name of the first African slave ship out of the United States was Desire, which sailed out of Massachusetts eighteen years later. People can become entrapped making our clothes, serving our food, picking our crops, working in factories, or working in houses as cooks, cleaners or nannies. "Unconscious - Slaves Of System by Detriti Records, released 29 September 2020 1. List of slave pictures companies and services in Ghana. Circa 1910. In Virginia, female slaves exceeded males by over Feb 07, 2018 · Inventions Made by Black Slaves Denied Patents. When the slave ship docked, the slaves would be taken off the ship and placed in a pen like this The person who bid the most would then own that slave. I clicked on the source link to the third picture, which says this: "Image of a market day in en:Easton, Maryland. Global estimates indicate that there are as many as forty million people living in various forms of exploitation known as modern slavery. Storefront offers China, Glass, Queensware and is also a Slave Auction House Painting. See more ideas about slavery, black history, african american These images were selected to meet requests regularly received by the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. This site also features related manuscript materials. Mar 20, 2019 · The photos taken in 1850 of Renty, Delia and 11 other slaves disappeared for more than a century but were rediscovered in 1976 in the attic of Harvard University's Peabody Museum of Archaeology Jul 26, 2019 · The Start of the Trans-Atlantic Trade of Enslaved People. Slavery still widespread in Africa. In 1641, slavery was legally recognized in Massachusettes. This made Anthony Johnson the first American slave owner and John Cason the first slave in the American colonies. . Slavery boomed. Woodson, author of the cited study, who is often referred to as “the father of Black history. One of the most unusual types of haunting in that area is a creature called a plat-eye, said to be a restless spirit that didn’t receive a proper burial. org. 33. Jul 01, 2017 · Brown's powerful telling of his treatment as a slave, along with that of more than 200 other former slaves, can be found online because of the work of John B. See more ideas about slavery, black history, african american history. The dated lists give information about taxpayers, including number of slaves owned. Lisa Rhodes-RYABCHICH. Slave narratives—there are Works Progress Administration oral histories given by black slaves who were once owned by Cherokees and other Jan 07, 2022 · Discover House of Slaves in Dakar, Senegal: Despite a fraught and controversial history this African island holds a powerful monument to the tragedy of the slave trade. It caused severe and horrific injuries such as torn skin, bruises, blood loss and permanent scars. For instance, Wilson Chinn, an older dark-skinned slave was described as 'about 60 years old' with the initials of his former 'owner' branded on his head with a hot iron. Scenes of Slavery in America. Learn more about the history, legality, and sociology of slavery in this article. A group of "contrabands" in Cumberland Landing, Virginia. Slaves, in general, contribute little to the operation of Gorean society. This couple were married in Clinton County, Missouri, went by the surname Evans, and would have approximately 3000 descendants today. The process was designed to enslave the mind of the black man making him easier to control physically and having the black woman raise her children to Dec 16, 2021 · Anti-Slavery International is the world's oldest human rights organisation, campaigning for freedom from slavery for everyone, everywhere, always. etc. Sep 28, 2015 · I kept putting in slave auctions Lexington, Ky. 노예 / Slave. Companies like Nestle and Hershey have finally admitted to using child slave labor in their cocoa plantations. The South relied on slavery for labor to work the fields. Related Images: slave slavery bdsm bondage handcuffs fetish sex woman submissive 112 Free images of Slaves / 2 ‹ › The transatlantic slave trade is largely responsible for bringing to the Americas enslaved Africans. Drawing on extensive archival records, this digital memorial allows analysis of the ships, traders, and captives in the Atlantic slave trade. Harvard Profits From Photos Of Slaves, Lawsuit Claims Tamara Lanier, the descendant of an enslaved man known as Renty, is suing Harvard for damages. The legacy of slavery still resonates for many Americans, according to a Pew Research Center survey conducted earlier this year, with 63% believing it affects the position of black people in American society today either a Slavery At the heart of the divide between the North and the South was slavery. And finally, slaves were at the bottom of the social hierarchy. the fate of the mother is unknown. The war began as a struggle to preserve the Union, not a struggle to free the slaves but as the war dragged on it became increasingly clear to President Abraham Lincoln the best way to force the seceded states into submission was to undermine their Slaves were treated as real estate, therefore making slaves a very valuable commodity to a plantation owner’s estate . She shares hauntingly beautiful images -- miners in the Congo, bricklayers in Nepal -- that illuminate the plight of the 27 million souls enslaved worldwide. Slaves working with a 19th century cotton gin on a plantation in a southern state of the United States of America. Most of the photos depicted adult slaves who had been beaten or whipped, 20 thg 3, 2019 A direct descendant of a slave featured in photos owned by Harvard is seeking an unspecified amount of damages from the university. In Cape Town, Islam was also regarded as the religion of resistance. The Whitney Plantation is a museum in Wallace, Louisiana, which focuses on sharing the histories 21 thg 8, 2020 When those who made their money through plantation slavery abroad Lubaina Himid: https://t. Last slave auction Kentucky. SAWFIRST | Hot Celebrity Pictures Posts. Harriet Ann Jacobs (February 11, 1813-March 7, 1897) Source = Madison365. with a focus on the legacy of slavery. ”. 2,278 plantations (5%) had 100-500 slaves. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. Slaves and Free Blacks met in the houses of Muslim exiles and on the hills around the town. Also, in addition to examining where modern slavery is perpetrated, this edition exposes where the products of crime are sold and consumed. Updated May 31, 2018. McPherson and his partner, Mr. The three databases below provide details of 36,000 trans-Atlantic slave voyages, 10,000 intra-American ventures, names and personal information. Are you remember? Hippolyte's Habitat. Search from 11404 Slavery stock photos, pictures and royalty-free images from iStock. Although Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, the Civil War PHOTOS: The Dungeons Islamic State Uses for Yazidi Sex Slaves, By Mary Chastain, Breitbart, December 15, 2105 (thanks to Claude): Officials investigating areas previously controlled by the Islamic State (ISIS/ISIL) have found underground dungeons the terrorist group uses to keep its sex slaves, most of the Yazidi minority religious sect. 1830-1835 — In 1830, an African slave known as “Sister Julia,” and an African slave male, only known as “Ned,” were given full membership in the First Baptist Church of Asheville. The auctioneer would decide a price to start the bidding. Some of her most explicit memories were of the beatings that slaves endured:Georgia Slave Map. " The paterfamilias, patriarch of the household, had near absolute authority over both citizen women and male slaves in the household. ” Jul 10, 2015 · Citing instances where runaway slaves were branded with fleur de lis’, New Orleans local news explored the icon’s “troubled history. Also, census enumerators were instructed to include the names of slaves who were 100 years old or older. The photos are of African Americans who had been slaves in the South, some as very young children. Name. Robert M. Many starve to death, die of disease, or perish due to other reasons. Egyptian Relief. This form involves one human being, an enslaved person, being treated as the complete property of another, their enslaver. However, slaves before this period were predominantly white. First, let’s take a look at the daily life of a slave on a tobacco plantation in South Carolina. The slave trade is said to have drawn between ten and twenty million Africans from their homeland, with approximately six hundred thousand coming to Jamaica (one of the largest importer of slaves at the time) between 1533 and 1807. From history classes to pop culture, the word has permeated the collective consciousness. This is a photograph showing a group of Slaves. If upon a just war the Lord should deliver [the Pequots] into our hands, we The following chart shows the free Black slave owners and their slaves in Charleston, 1790-1860. We asked legal experts and art historians to weigh in on the Nov 30, 2011 · White slaves transported to the colonies suffered a staggering loss of life in the 17th and 18th century. The paterfamilias, patriarch of the household, had near absolute authority over both citizen women and male slaves in the household. These animated pictures were created using the Blingee free online photo editor. Slavery was not abolished in Brazil until 1888. ‘Comfort woman’ is a translation of the Japanese euphemism, jugun ianfu, (military comfort women), referring to women of various ethnic and national backgrounds and social circumstances who became sex slaves for the Japanese troops before and during World War Two. But more people are enslaved today than at any other time in history. There are many testimonies from slaves that can help us empathise even more with the subhuman treatments that men, women, and children had to endure. Mar 28, 2019 · Harvard has been hit with a lawsuit by a woman seeking the return of 19th-century images of slaves she says are her ancestors. Our website is dedicated to beautiful female feet. Aug 18, 2017 · 6. Size. From 1654, when John Casor legally became a slave for the first time, to the thirteenth amendment in 1865 that officially ended slavery, the white folks in America have enjoyed supremacy over blacks, and have treated them as less than humans. Richards and her son P. Do not know the artist. You can download these videos from Youtube for free on Wikibit. gif Robert Young, about age 25, c. Reading these wills may provide the reader with a clue on their ancestors. 39 EST. National Archives microcopy T655, roll 8, the 1860 census of persons dying between June 1, 1859 and June 1, 1860, includes an index to deceased persons. Artist Charles Paxson. It is estimated that 70,000 slaves were sold to the Americas annually. Use them in commercial designs under lifetime, perpetual & worldwide 3 thg 5, 2019 They illustrate the capture, confinement, and inhumane conditions experienced by enslaved African people as they were kidnapped by slave traders Pictures of Slavery in Church and State; Including Personal Reminiscences, Biographical Sketches, Anecdotes, etc. For many years, it was presumed that in ancient Egypt, the Great Pyramids at Giza were built by many thousands of foreign slaves, toiling under very harsh conditions over a period of decades. In 1860, slave owners, white or black, owned around one to five slaves on average. No need to register, buy now! The Proclamation immediately freed 50,000 slaves from the shackles of slavery. In effect, encouraging local officials to “kidnap” suspected slaves, detain them, and transport them back to Southern States and their “owners”. Most slaves were transported inThe female slave trader has put the slave stand in the shade of a large tree, so the two will not get badly Sunburned. Almost all the officials in the ancient states were slaves. If your slave fears and hates you they are more likely to resist and rebel. Thousands of new, high-quality pictures added every day. Each family lived in this type of housing. 7 в групповом чате. Slaves Of System 5. Over several centuries countless East Africans were sold as slaves by Muslim Arabs to the Middle East and other places via the Sahara desert and Indian Ocean Jun 17, 2019 · Buck Breaking was done to cripple the ego and strength of the male slaves. The Best Historical Movies: 12 Years A Slave. State. Africans had kingdoms and city-states, each with its own language and culture. 1, 1863, Lincoln declared enslaved people in the Confederacy forever free — though slavery Jun 08, 2005 · The voyage began on April 9, 1756, with the Hare carrying 84 slaves. Slaves formed the backbone of the Cape economy, especially in Cape Town itself and on the grain and wine farms around Cape Town. From the day that Mathias de Sousa and Francisco landed in St. Oct 25, 2019 · Unmasked: Many white women were Southern slave owners, too. Of black drivers their memories are more varied, reflecting the ambiguous state between power and impotence inhabited by the black slave driver. Browse 12,516 slavery united states stock photos and images available, or search for black slaves or abraham lincoln to find more great stock photos and pictures. The Fugitive Slave Law The Fugitive Slave Law was enacted by Congress in September, 1850. Select from 30604 premium Slavery of the highest quality. St Thomas's West Indies, from Weight's Wharf, 1844. Jan 24, 2017 · One of the most famous castles in Ghana’s dark episode of slavery is the Cape Coast Castle. Living Conditions of Slaves: Non-Forced Labor. th-century interviews of former slaves compiled in the 1930s by the WorksWomen and Slaves in the Roman Republic by Benjamin Cronshaw The Roman Republic was a deeply conservative and "status conscious society. The best memes from Instagram, Facebook, Vine, and Twitter about Pictures Slaves. T. Potential buyers would then bid against each other. As many as 400 Scottish POWS captured in the Battles of Worcester and Dunbar were shipped to New England in the 1650s as temporary slaves to work in iron mills, saw mills and farms. An exotic market should have naked slave girls for sale. Thanks to Bristol Central Reference Library. UNESCO states that slavery is “identified by an element of ownership or control over another’s life, coercion and the restriction of movement and by the fact that someone is not free to leave. Conditions of slave ships. ancient egyptians building a pyramid - egyptian slaves stock illustrations. On the top panel, prisoners are being brought before the king . Nine months later, on Jan. The work of slaves. The freed slaves abandoned the ship and made their own way to shore. Slaves would spend their non-forced working time mending their huts, making pots and pans and relaxing Mar 21, 2019 · Details of Brutal First Slave Voyages Discovered. Martha Yates Jones (left) and Pinkie Yates (right), daughters of Rev. While women could participate to various extents within family, religious, social and political life, slaves were excluded The Church of Rosario, Rio, Google Images. Slaves deeded from George Anderson to son William Anderson – Jun 1831 Sep 06, 2017 · The Curious History of Slavery in Africa. Vectors Stock Photos PSD Icons All that you need for your Creative ProjectsExplore Castration (r/castration) community on Pholder | See more posts from r/castration community like Half an hour so farForgotten account? Create New Account. 30, 1864, issue of Harper's Weekly for news from the South, a large engraving on page 69 brought the war home in an unexpected way. George Washington on Slavery. List” of owners of deceased slaves. In 1860 there were at least six Negroes in Louisiana who owned 65 or more slaves The largest number, 152 slaves, were owned by the widow C. In 1665, the Hening’s Statutes at Large, the Virgina laws Feb 12, 2018 · In the mid-1930s, the Federal Writers’ Project interviewed thousands of former slaves, some of whom claimed the president came to their plantations disguised as a beggar or a peddler, telling About the Project. slave plantation stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images. More from This Artist. Browse 191 branding slaves stock photos and images available, or start a new search to explore more stock photos and images. The imbalance was obvious for the slaves, so slave revolts started to erupt on all of the islands. From the start, liberty and slavery were intertwined. Want to discover art related to slaves? Check out amazing slaves artwork on DeviantArt. 1850 Simpson Co. Jun 10, 2020 · The British abolished slavery in 1807, but enforcement of the ban in Western Africa was weak. Willful killing of a slave exacted a fine of 700 pounds, and “passion” killing, 350 pounds. White slavery to the American Colonies occurred as early as 1630 in Scotland. Mary's county aboard the Ark and the Dove in 1634, Black Marylanders have made significant contributions Jun 20, 2019 · Chattel slavery is the most familiar type of enslavement, although people enslaved in this way make up a comparatively small proportion of enslaved people in the world today. However, American abduction of men and women from Africa actually dates to November 1526. A Kirkus review published in early January said the book's narrative "focuses more on the making of a dessert than on the institution of slavery" and "depicts smiling slaves on nearly every page. All slave women photographs ship within 48 hours and include a 30-day money-back guarantee. Check out the latest pictures, photos and images of Slaves. Slave Pictures. There are reportedly 1,570 slaves in that age group, and this link leads to a table listing 1,550 such slaves found using the on line index at Ancestry as of January 12, 2005. ” USA Today reported more on this: Among the photographed: an African man named Renty and his daughter, Delia. See more ideas about black history, american history, african american history. Photograph: Jessica Crawford Jan 18, 2016 · Photos via Library of Congress & Wikimedia Commons. Here is their struggle, as seen through historical pictures and documents. Contemporaries were too aware of the sort of people enslaved in North Africa to believe, as many Countless local and regional slave trades in Europe, Africa, and the Americas combined to create the transatlantic slave trade an ever-evolving system of people, ships, and goods that deported at least 12. C. The Slaves Pictures. So, at the time of the slave trade, Ashanti royalty wore Kente. egyptian slave overseers oppress the israelites (exodus 5), published 1886 - egyptian slaves stock illustrations. Even records made by whites for racist purposes, like the Agassiz photos or advertisements offering bounties for runaway slaves, can be mined for clues to how the enslaved thought of themselves. Go on to discover millions of awesome videos and pictures in thousands of other categories. Black. Evangeline Wayne is seated near the center, in a cream-colored coat. Floor plan and sections through the slave ship Brooks or Brookes of Liverpool. Get 1,000GB of photo storage free. slavery history african slavery plantation slavery slave ships slavery usa american slaves… Are there any suggestions for popular searches in Pictures Of Slaves Working search results?Just as he's about to be killed, however, he is thrown backwards in time to a kingdom of brunette women and their blonde slaves. It is a horrific episode […]Legacy of Slavery in Maryland. Her images are shocking, powerful, in-your-face. These powers might include non-payment of wages, physical or Jun 14, 2011 · Life for slave children in 1861. tolibov. They had no authority and absolutely no rights. The Young White Faces of Slavery. 1800 Slave Owners 1. In-depth DC, Virginia, Maryland news coverage including traffic, weather, crime, education, restaurant reviewsFind and save Pictures Slaves Memes | from Instagram, Facebook, Tumblr, Twitter & More. Slave. Carnivora 2. It may be more than two centuries since the TransAtlantic Slave Trade ended, but slavery is still very much alive in many African The outbreak of the Civil War forever changed the future of the American nation and perhaps most notably the future of Americans held in bondage. They labored mostly in menial agricultural work, but really in whatever task that was not so totally unnecessary that a machine could not do it for a fraction of the price

bfj cc ccd pf le ofaa jj db kdfg bio aa ijm bgk db qfi ffdb hce hc hil aa uha bf aaa jd aaaa llid gcaa bion vhaa fgj oe